In the real estate industry, you can find several types of houses with unique designs, characteristics, and histories.
In this article, we will be taking a close look at one of the popular types of houses typical in the southern parts of the United States, antebellum homes.
Antebellum homes are widely recognized for their opulence, grandeur, and historical significance.
The architectural magnificence of these homes, which were constructed in the Southern United States during the pre-Civil War era, still enthralls and inspires us today.
Antebellum homes continue to be a symbol of the South’s rich cultural legacy because of their distinctive Greek Revival and Gothic designs, as well as their opulent front porches and elaborate decorations.
What Are Antebellum Homes?
Antebellum homes are a style of architecture mostly prevalent in the southern US. These contentious magnificent mansions from the 19th century have complex designs with strong ties to slavery.
The term “antebellum” comes from the Latin words “ante”, meaning “before”, and “bellum”, meaning “war”.
Antebellum homes are houses built before the Civil War that occurred between the North and the South between 1861-1865, known as the antebellum period.
These homes are known for their grandeur, elegance, and historical significance.
Antebellum homes are large, spacious mansions with two to three floors, usually constructed with brick, stone, or wood.
They have beautiful moldings, intricate wrought ironwork, high ceilings, sizable windows, and vast rooms that make them both beautiful and functional.
Many of the antebellum homes still exist today and are popular tourist destinations. They offer insight into the ways of life and ideals of those who lived during the antebellum era and serve as a reminder of the rich cultural and architectural legacy of the Southern United States.
History Of Antebellum Homes
Antebellum homes make a reference to a turbulent time in American history. These types of houses have a complicated history due to their connection to slavery in the Southern US.
As a result, the Antebellum architectural style is more of a time and area known as the Old South than a unique set of characteristics.
The affluence of the thriving plantations at the time allowed for the construction of these magnificent homes.
Following Napoleon’s fall in 1815, more Europeans traveled to America to seek a better life. Many of these immigrants purchased property to grow in-demand goods like cotton, tobacco, sugar, and indigo.
They became sellers of these crops, starting the great plantation era in the South.
They also hired slaves to work on the plantations, which allowed the owners to keep the majority of the revenue for themselves.
The Industrial Revolution, which peaked between 1820 and 1860, overlapping the Antebellum period, also contributed to their riches.
New farm equipment increased agricultural productivity, while the expanding railroad network increased the profitability of interstate commerce.
A hitherto unprecedented commercial surge was the outcome.
Many immigrants profited from the Industrial Age and made enough money to rise in status. The new class sought to flaunt their wealth with impressive displays like opulent houses, and as a result, they spent large amounts of money to build large extravagant houses.
However, the English, Scottish, and Irish immigrants who had recently arrived preferred fashions that were largely unfamiliar to the region.
At this time, classical-order architectural trends were very prominent in Europe. People began to admire symmetry and simplicity in building designs as the Enlightenment spread because they were seen as symbols of harmony, balance, and reason.
Immigrants from Europe were also affected by English conceptions of the country house. Elegant decorations, formal facades, and attractive gardens adorned these country homes, which also served as social status symbols for their owners.
The area was previously inhabited by Spanish and French colonizers as well as indigenous tribes, including the Natchez and Creek, who each built houses in the styles of their own cultures.
The newcomers brought with them an interest in classical revival architecture, notably the Greek revival, which gained popularity in Europe in the early 19th century as a result of fresh architectural discoveries in Greece.
After 1820, this style swiftly took up residence in North America, where it was seen as a representation of reason and pride in one’s country.
It is easy to believe that these opulent Southern houses were constructed purely for selfish reasons and as a means of showing off their newly obtained money.
Actually, they were frequently meant to be displays of love and devotion. It was customary for a wealthy guy at the time to have his bride’s dream home constructed as a wedding present.
Antebellum plantation homes, however lovely they may be, are marred by the horrible history of the slave trade from which they originated.
Some people contend that the structures should be completely demolished because it is morally wrong to keep using slave labor’s products.
Others would rather keep them intact so that future generations might learn about a troubling period in the country’s history.
According to historians, about 20% of these once-common houses are still in livable shape.
The Civil War significantly affected antebellum homes, especially those in the plantation style. Many of the homeowners lost their fortunes and were no longer able to maintain their properties.
Modern city planners removed some of this Southern architectural type to make space for homes that were smaller and more functional.
They converted other antebellum houses into educational facilities, medical centers, public structures, and museums.
Numerous of these museums aim to depict the complex history of the enslaved people as well as their intriguing architectural design.
Characteristics Of Antebellum Homes
Antebellum homes typically have a big, boxy, symmetrical architecture with central entrances in the front and back of the property, resembling Greek Revival homes and a few other styles.
All of these houses can be characterized by their large verandas or balconies with Greek-style columns or pillars.
Other architectural characteristics of Antebellum homes include hipped or gabled roofs, uniformly spaced windows, elegant balconies, and covered front porches with a central entryway leading to a majestic staircase and frequently a towering roof.
These homes have balconies that border the exterior edge of the building.
The inner parts of the house are protected from direct south sunlight by the deep overhangs of the roof.
The house has many windows on every side, which helps keep it cool.
There are many sheltered outdoor spaces for family meetings, like porches and verandas, and the porches frequently have various wall divisions to use the space for diverse purposes.
The other elements of antebellum homes were primarily ornamental. The purpose of columns is to attract attention and provide an air of luxury.
These homes have stunning interiors to match their gorgeous exteriors. Open staircases, enormous foyers, lavish ballrooms, and exquisite plasterwork along the ceilings are a few of the flamboyant characteristics.
Examples Of Antebellum Homes
1. Stanton Hall
Stanton Hall is an Antebellum Classical Revival building at 401 High Street in Natchez, Mississippi.
It is one of the most lavish antebellum mansions to have survived in the Southeast of the United States and was built in the 1850s.
It was constructed as a replica of Frederick Stanton’s ancestral home in Ireland. Stanton Hall was built in the 1850s for the cotton trader Frederick Stanton.
Although Stanton named it “Belfast,” he barely lived there for nine months before passing away from yellow fever.
Stanton Hall is located North of the city center of Natchez, on a 2-acre (0.81-hectare) city block bordered by High, Commerce, Monroe, and Pearl Streets.
The property is surrounded by wrought iron fencing with elegant gate posts. The house is a two-story brick building that has been plastered and painted white.
The entrance of the house has a two-story Greek temple porch with four fluted Corinthian columns supporting an entablature and gabled pediment.
Ornate iron railings line the spaces between the columns, and a second-floor balcony railing is positioned beneath the porch.
The main roof is truncated and hipped, with a sizable cupola in the middle. The interior is ornately designed with exquisite Italian marble, and glass and bronze chandeliers.
It was bought by the Pilgrimage Garden Club in 1940, and today it functions as both the club’s headquarters and a museum and event space.
Thomas Rose, who also planned and built the house, charged about $82,000. Furthermore, it is claimed that Mr. Rose asked Frederick Stanton to autograph a piece of his wonderful work on the property, but Stanton declined.
In retaliation, Mr. Rose had the home’s perimeter wrought iron fencing decorated with an abundance of roses as a symbol of his tacit disapproval.
2. Nottoway Plantation
In the city of White Castle, Louisiana, there is a stunning antebellum home called Nottoway Plantation. It was included in the National Register of Historic Places in 1980.
In 1859, John Hampden Randolph purchased the land and started construction on the house.
Mr. Randolph had 155 African-Americans as his slaves. They toiled in the fields of sugarcane.
Mrs. Randolph sold the property in 1889 for $50,000 following the passing of Mr. Randolph. Currently, in the Nottoway plantation house, there are 200 windows and 165 doors. It is now being used as a museum.
To build the massive residence as cheaply as possible, John Randolph hired renowned New Orleans architect Henry Howard.
The double-curved granite stairs leading up to the second story were constructed by renowned mason Newton Richards.
The staircase was divided simply because Mr. Randolph did not want his girls to use the same staircase as men as their ankles might be visible through their skirts, and at the time that was viewed as a serious breach of social decorum.
Only women were allowed on the left side of the staircase, while men were only allowed on the right side.
Above one of the fireplaces is a painting of Mary Henshaw, whose eyes are designed to follow the viewer around the space.
The first-floor basement had been converted into a cafeteria and a historical plantation museum. The area was initially used to store dairy, laundry, and wine.
The historic antebellum octagonal home Longwood, also known as Nutt’s Folly, is situated at 140 Lower Woodville Road in Natchez, Mississippi, in the United States.
The mansion, which was partially constructed by slaves, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places in the United States and is a National Historic Landmark. It is the largest octagonal mansion in the country.
The house is noted for its elaborate onion-shaped dome, octagonal construction, and the contrast between the first and higher levels’ completed and unfinished states.
Longwood is situated in the United States and is listed as a National Historic Landmark. Longwood was constructed by Samuel Sloan in 1859 for Dr. Haller Nutt, the owner of a cotton plantation, and his family.
When the Northeastern workers fled with their tools, the construction of the building was abandoned, leaving it incomplete to date.
Except for the ground level, the inside was still unfinished, while the outside was mostly finished.
Haller passed away in 1864 due to sickness, but his wife Julia and kids continued to live on the finished first floor.
The top five stories’ interiors were never finished. The plot was purchased by the Pilgrimage Garden Club in 1970, and in 1971 it was deemed a National Historic Landmark.
4. Rosalie Mansion
The Rosalie Mansion is a historic pre-Civil War estate and historic house museum In Natchez, Mississippi.
It was constructed in 1823 and served as the design model for many of Natchez’s opulent Greek Revival homes.
It also had a significant impact on Antebellum architecture in the surrounding area.
From July 1863 on, it functioned as the Union’s regional command for the Natchez region during the American Civil War. In 1989, it received the National Historic Landmark designation.
At the intersection of Orleans and South Broadway Streets, Rosalie, which has a view of the Mississippi River, is situated southwest of Natchez’s central business district.
It is a three-story brick structure that is essentially cubical, with a truncated hip roof ringed by a low railing.
Its impressive four-column Tuscan porch includes an entablature, a gabled pediment, and a semi-oval window in the center of the frontage of the house.
Both the balcony and the house’s ground floor are accessible via wide entrances in the central bay; each has double-leaf doors, sidelight windows, and semi-oval transom windows.
Although it has a flat roof without an entablature, the center of the back elevation is covered by a five-column veranda.
Rosalie Mansion was constructed on a cliff overlooking the Mississippi River in 1823 for Peter Little, a wealthy cotton merchant.
It is situated on a piece of land where the French at Fort Rosalie were massacred by Natchez Indians in 1729.
A week after the Battle of Vicksburg, on July 13, 1863, General Grant gained control of Rosalie to serve as the Union Army’s command center.
General Walter Gresham assumed command of the Union Army soldiers at Natchez on August 26, 1863. His administrative center remained in Rosalie.
The Rosalie mansion was declared a national historic landmark in 1989 and has been owned and run by the Mississippi State Society Daughters of the American Revolution as a historic house museum for more than 70 years.
5. Magnolia Plantation
The Magnolia Plantation is a former cotton plantation that can be found in Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana.
The site, which includes several slave huts, various structures, and period technology, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 2001.
It is noteworthy as one of the country’s most intact 19th-century antebellum homes. Magnolia Plantation is a destination on the Louisiana African American Heritage Trail as well as a part of the Cane River Creole National Historical Park.
There are two plantations in the park, Oakland Plantation being the other one.
This plantation can be traced back to Jean Baptiste LeComte II, who, in the middle of the 18th century, was given land grants by the French and the Spanish.
This was when the history of the plantation officially started. However, the plantation did not begin operations until 1830, and the first buildings were not completed until the 19th century.
Julia Buard was married to Ambrose LeComte, the son of Jean Baptiste, and they started a tradition of community and farming on a sizable plot of land.
Two of their daughters, Laura and Ursula Atala, wed Bernard Theophile Henry and Matthew Hertzog, two sons from the Hertzog family, respectively.
The Hertzog name is connected to Magnolia since Atala (LeComte) and Matthew Hertzog assumed control of the plantation soon after their marriage in 1852.
Ambrose II possessed several farms totaling more than 6,000 acres by 1860, with over 275 slaves living in 70 cottages and working to plant and harvest cotton and other crops.
Magnolia Plantation is unique because it still uses farming equipment like cotton picker tractors and two cotton gins that are driven by both steam and animals.
It has 21 buildings that add to the value of the site, which is an extraordinarily high number for surviving plantations.
In conclusion, antebellum houses are not only stunning examples of early architecture; they also serve as a constant reminder of the distinct and nuanced history of the American South.
These homes radiate elegance and charm thanks to their distinguishing characteristics.
Owning or visiting an antebellum home is a very unique experience, whether you’re a history enthusiast or you just like gorgeous architecture.